(1) There are those who suggest that Lev 11: 2-23 is dependent on Deut 14:4-20 such as Rolf Rendtorff. Die Gesetze in der Priesterschrift, eine gattungsgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1954), p. 45 n. 34; Klaus Koch, Die Priesterschaft von Exodus 25 bis Leviticus 16, eine überlieferungsgeschichtliche und literarkritische Untersuchung (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959), p. 76, suggests that the appearance of mîn in Deut 14:13-18 is due to later assimilation to Lev 11:14-19. Martin Noth, Das dritte Buch Mose (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962), p. 76, suggest that Deut 14 is earlier than Lev 11, but that a part of Deut 14:13-18 has been influenced by an earlier version of Lev 11. A. L. Moran, The Literary Connection Between Lev 11, 13-19 and Dt 14, 12-18. Catholic Biblical Quarterly (28, 1966): pp. 271-77, argues for an ancient source for both Lev and Deut, but assigns priority to Deut over Lev. He suggest that the additional ten birds listed in Lev 11 were borrowed from the latter text and added to Deut. Kim-Kwong Chan. You Shall Not Eat These Abominable Things: An Examination of Different Interpretations on Deuteronomy 14:3-20, East Asia Journal of Theology 3 (1985): pp. 88-106, follows Moran's theory of dependence (pp. 90, 94). The matter of literary dependence is obviously a complex one and cannot be pursued within the confines of this paper. For the purposes of our subject it does not seem to be decisive in one way or another.

(2) E. Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws and the Concept of Holiness, Studies in the Pentateuch. ed. J. A. Emerton (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990), pp. 177-208, speaks of the dietary laws as belonging to the category of moral imperatives (p.184).

(3) See Dorothea Wendebourg, Die alttestamentlichen Reinheitsgesetze in der frühen Kirche, Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 95 (1984): pp. 149-70.

(4) So John G. Gammie, Holiness in Israel (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989), p. 10.

(5) So again Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws, p. 184

(6) Credit for various distinctions between the two types of uncleanness go to the Dr. Jiri Moskala.

(7) This is clearly recognized by Harrison, Leviticus, p. 37

(8) Dr. Jiri Moskala has made this distinction earlier on the basis of studies of a comparative nature within the concepts of cleansing rites.

(9) G. André and H. Ringgren, "tame'," Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, eds. G. J. Botterweck and H. Ringgren (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986), V: 33()-42.

(10) David P. Wright, Leprosy, Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. Paul J. Achtemeier (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985) p. 555, notes that the skin diseases of Lev 13 are not modern leprosy (Hansen's disease).

(11) Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws, p. 1~3, also speaks of animals as "inherently 'unclean' ".

(12) In Lev 11 the designation "unclean" is used for animals that are inherently unclean in vss. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 29, 31, 47. The translation "detestable" or "abhorrent" is employed for The Hebrew term sheqets also for animals that are inherently unclean as in Lev 11:10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 41, 42.

(13) André, "tame' ", pp. 332-32, writes erroneously that "an unclean animal renders unclean everything and everyone that comes into contact with it... Anyone who picks it up or touches (naga') it is unclean until evening..." Evidently this is true only for the carcass of an unclean animal, but not of a live unclean animal.

(14) J. C. Moyer, "Hittite and Israelite Cultic Practices: A Selective Comparison", Scripture in Context II: More Essays in Comparative Method, eds. W. W. Hallo et al. (Winona Lake: Eis-enbrauns, 1983), pp. 29-33, describes the impurity of the pig and dog in Hittite culture. When these animals have contact with food they would pollute it.

(15) See among the commentaries those by Martin Noth, Leviticus "Old Testament Library" (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1965), p. 12; J. R. Porter, Leviticus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976), p. 82; Gordon J. Wenham, The Book of Leviticus (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979); pp. 3-5; R. K. Harrison, Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary (Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press, 1980), pp. 36-37; Baruch A. Levine, Leviticus, The JPS Torah Commentary (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1989), pp. 63-69.

(16) William H. Shea. Literary Form and Theological Function in Leviticus, The Seventy Weeks Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy, ed. Frank B. Holbrook, Daniel and Revelation Committee Series, vol. 3 (Washington, D. C.: Biblical Research Institute of the General Conference of SDAs, 1986), pp. 130-68, discovers a chiastic structure with Lev 16 at the center.

(17) Peter C. Craigie. The Book of Deuteronomy, The International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1976), p. 231, makes this statement regarding Deut 14. It applies equally with regard to its parallel chapter of Lev 11.

(18) One such published attempt is the one by David P. Wright, The Disposal of Impurity. Elimination Rites in the Bible and in Hittite and Mesopotamian Literature, SBL Dissertation Series (Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press. 1987), pp. 200- 206.

(19) The structure of Lev 11 and its careful composition is widely acknowledged, see Karl Elliger, Leviticus, Handbuch zum Alten Testament (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1966), pp. 142-149.

(20) A detailed discussion on the disposal of such impurity or acquired uncleanness is found in Wright, The Disposal of Impurity, pp. 200-206.

(21) Studies that treat the complex subject of clean/unclean und purity/impurity in the Old Testament in general manner, see W. R. Smith. The Religion of the Semites: The Fundamental Institutions (2nd ed.; New York: Schocken Books, 1972): J. Döller, Die Reinheits- und Speisegesetze des Alten Testaments in religionsgeschichtlicher Beleuchtung (Münster: Aschendorff, 1917); Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966); W. Paschen, Rein und Unrein: Untersuchung zur biblischen Wortgeschichte (München: Kösel Verlag, 1970); Jakob Neusner, The Idea of Purity in Ancient Judaism (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973), E. Feldman, Biblical and Post-Biblical Defilement and Mourning: Law as Theology New York: Yeshiva University and KTAV, 1977); I. Zatelli, Il campo lessicale degli aggettivi di purita in Ebraico biblico (Firenze: Istituo di Linguistica e di Lingue Orientali, Università di Firenze, 1978). There are two studies that survey work done on the subject of purity and cleanness, see J. Henninger, D. Meeks, M.-J. Seux and H. Cazelles, Pureté et Impureté , Dictionnaire de la Bible. Supplément (Paris: Letouzey & Ané , 1979), IX:309-508; E. Cortese, Le recerche sulla concezione 'sacerdotale' circa puro-impuro nell'ultimo decennio, Rivista Biblica 27 (1979): pp. 339-57.

(22) Here M. H. Segal, The Pentateuch, Its Composition and its Authorship and Other Biblical Studies (Jerusalem: Magnes Press of the Hebrew University, 1967), p. 45, makes the significant point that Lev 1-10 is "the completion and conclusion of the story of the tabernacle" which was begun in Exod 25.

(23) The expression is from L. E. Toombs, Clean and Unclean, Interpreter 's Dictionary of the Bible (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1962), I:645.

(24) Lev 11:4, 5. 6, 7, 8, 24, 24, 25, 26, 26, 27, 27, 28, 28, 28, 31, 31, 32, 32, 33, 34, 34, 35, 35, 35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 40, 43, 43, 44, 47.

(25) L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958), p. 1009; William L. Holladay, Jr., A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publ. Comp., 1971), p. 383.

(26) J. G. Botterweck, "chazir" Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, IV: 297.

(27) So Jacob Milgrom according to Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws, p. 206.

(28) Wright, The Disposal of Impurity, p. 202.

(29) The definition of the "sojourner, alien" as provided in W. L. Holladay, Jr., A Concise He brew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1971), p. 64, reads: "ger is a man who either alone or w. his family, leaves his village k. tribe, because of war (2S 4:3), famine (Ru 1:1) pestilence, bloodguilt, &c., & seeks shelter & sojourn elsewhere, where his right to own land, to marry, & to participate in the administration of justice, in the cult, & war is curtailed." The ger, "sojourner, alien", was usually a non-Israelite who chose to live among Israelites.

(30) D. Kellermann, "gur", Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, eds. J. G. Botter weck and H. Ringgren (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1975), II:447.

(31) E. Gerstenberger, "t'b", Theologisches Handwörterbuch zum Alten Testament, eds. E. Jenni and C. Westermann (Zurich/Munich: Kaiser, 1976), II: 1053.  (32) Credit for pointing to these universal relationships between Lev 17-18 and Deut 14 goes to my colleague Dr. Richard Davidson.

(33) For example, Claus Westermann, Genesis 1-11. A Commentary (Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1984) , pp. 427-29; Hermann Gunkel, Genesis (6th ed.; Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt. 1963), pp. 62-64; O. Procksch, Die Genesis (Leipzig: Deichertsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1913), pp. 62-65; Gerhard von Rad, Genesis, A Commentary (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1961), pp. 114-16; Walter Brueggemann, Genesis. A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1982), pp. 73-88.


(34) For a critique with modern literature, see Gerhard F. Hasel, Biblical Interpretation Today. An Analysis of Modern Methods of Biblical Interpretation and Proposals for the Interpretation of the Bible as the Word of God (Washington, D. C.: Biblical Research Institute of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1985), pp. 7-27.

(35) Gen 1-11 is customarily designated "primeval history". It may be more advantageous to call it "history of beginnings". It is universally recognized to be "universal" in outlook and having the whole world in view. See A. E. Speiser, Genesis, The Anchor Bible, (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964) p. LIII; Westermann, Genesis 1-11, pp. 1-64; Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis Chapters 1-17, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans , 1990) p. 10; Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis 1-15, Word Biblical Commentary, vol. 1, (Waco, TX: Word Book Publishers, 1987) pp. xlvi-liii.

(36) Gunkel, Genesis, p. 62.

(37) Westermann, Genesis, p. 428.

(38) So G. Ch. Aalders, Genesis, Vol. 1 (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1981), p. 168.

(39) C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament. The Pentateuch (Grand Rapids. MI: Eerdmans Publ. Comp., n. d.), I:144.

(40) Hansjörg Bräumer, D~ as erste Buch Mose, Kapitel l-l 1 (Wuppertal: R. Brockhaus. 1983), p. 171.

(41) A similar point is made by Gordon J. Wenham, Genesis I-I5 (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1987), p. 177.

(42) Howard Eilberg-Schwartz. Creation and Classification in Judaism: From Priestly to Rabbinic Conceptions, History of Religions 26 (1987): 361 n. 11.

(43) Ibid., pp. 360-61.

(44) Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon, p. 102.

(45) Levine, Leviticus, p. 66.

(46) J. G. Botterweck, "behemah", Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, eds. J. G. Botterweck and H. Ringgren (Grand Rapids, Ml: Eerdmans, 1975), II:10.

(47) Wenham, Genesis 1-15, p. 25; Botterweck, "behemah", p. 9; etc.

(48) Douglas, Purity and Danger, pp. 41-57, argues that the creation narrative of Gen 1 gave rise to the dietary laws.

(49) Eilberg-Schwartz, p. 361.

(50) Surveys and evaluations are presented among others by W. H. Gispen, The Distinction Between Clean and Unclean, Oudtestamentische Studien, ed. P. A. H. de Boer (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1948, V: 190-96; I Grunfeld, The Philosophical and Moray Basis of the Jewish Dietary Laws (London: The Hillel Foundation, 1961), pp. 5-22; Walter Kornfeld, Die unreinen Tiere im Alten Testament, Wissenschaft im Dienste des Glaubens, Festschrift für Abt Dr. Hermann Peichl (Wien: Herder Verlag, 1965), pp. 11-27; idem, Reine und unreine Tiere im Alten Tes- tament, Kairos 7 (1965): pp. 134-47; J. Milgrom, The Biblical Diet Laws as an Ethical System, Interpretation 17 (1963): pp. 288-301; Gordon J. Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, Evangelical Quarterly 53 (1981): pp. 6-15.

(51) This view is supported by Martin Noth, Leviticus (London: SCM Press, 1965), p. 62; idem, The Laws in the Pentateuch and Other Studies (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1966), pp. S6-57; Döller, Die Reinheits-und Speisegesetze, pp. 231-32; and in part by Noordtzij, Leviticus, pp. 121-22; and others.

(52) Frederick J. Simoons, Eat Not This Flesh. Food Avoidances in the Old World (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961), pp. 13-43.

(53) For ancient evidence, see Kornfeld, Reine und unreine Tiere im Alten Testament, pp. 135- 36, and more recent evidence, see R. de Vaux, Les sacrifices de porcs en Palestine et dans l'Ancien Orient, Von Ugarit nach Qumran, eds. J. Hempel and L. Rost (Berlin: Töpelmann, 1958), pp. 250-65; Anton Jirku. Leviticus 11, 29-33 im Lichte der Ugarit-Forschung, Zeitschrift fur alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 84 (1972): p. 348.

(54) Wenham, Leviticus, p. 167; Kornfeld, Reine und unreine Tiere im Alten Testament, p. 136.

(55) Porter, Leviticus, p. 84.

(56) Mac Lennan, The Worship of Animals and Plants (1869) as cited in Kornfeld. Die unreinen Tiere im Alten Testament, p. 12 n. 12.

(57) W. Roberston Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1889), p. 143.

(58) Bernhard Stade, Biblische Theologie des Alten Testaments (Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1905), I:135-42.

(59) M. H. Pope, Totemism, Interpreter's Bible Dictionary (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1962), IV: 674.

(60) See Eduard König, Theologie des Alten Testaments kritisch und vergleichend dargestellt

(Stuttgart: C. Belser. 1922), pp. 28-29. Particularly insightful is the critique of Karl Wigand, Die altisraelitische Vorstellung von unreinen Tieren, Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft 17 (1914): 427-31.

(61) Kornfeld, Die unreinen Tiere im Alten Testament, p. 12.

(62) Ibid., p. 26.

(63) Ibid.

(64) Jacob Milgrom, Ethics and Ritual: The Foundation of Biblical Dietary Laws, Religion and Law: Biblical-Judaic and Islamic Perspectives, eds. Edwin B. Firmage, Bernard G. Weiss and John W. Welch (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990), p. 175.

(65) Douglas, Purity and Danger, p. 49.

(66) Ibid., p. 55.

(67) Ibid., p. 53.

(68) Ibid., p. 5S

(69) Anna S. Meigs, A Papuan Perspective on Pollution, Man 13 (1978): pp. 304-318.

(70) Eilberg-Schwartz, p. 358.

(71) Jacob Milgrom, An Investigation into the Meaning of "unclean" in Our Culture, Directions (Los Angeles: The University of Judaism, 1981), pp. 4-6; J. R. Porter, Leviticus (London: Cambridge University Press, 1976), p. 84; Wenham, Leviticus, pp. 168-71; idem, The Theology of Unclean Food, pp. 9-11; G ammie, Holiness in Israel, pp. 10-11.

(72) Robert Alter, A New Theory of Kashrut, Commentary 68/2 (1979): p. 49, where he actually objects to Jean Soler, The Dietary Prohibitions of the Hebrews, The New York Review of Books (June 14, 1979): 24-30, use of these animals. Soler and Douglas, however, have the same argument and so it applies to both.

(73) So Eilberg-Schwartz, p. 359.

(74) Milgrom, Ethics and Ritual, pp. 176-183.

(75) Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws, 182.

(76) Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, p. 6.

(77) Roland E. Clements, Leviticus, Broadman Bible Commentary (London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott, 1971), II:34.

(78) For instance. Peter C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy, The New International Commentary on the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 1976), p. 231. William F. Albright, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan (Garden City: Doubleday & Comp., 1968, pp. 177- 81, speak of the dietary laws of Lev 11 and Deut 14 as "hygienic laws" or "hygienic regulations".

(79) H. Karrison, Leviticus, pp. 126-31.

(80) D. I. Macht, An Experimental Pharmacological Appreciation of Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 27 (1953): pp. 444-50.

(81) Wenham The Theology of Unclean Food, p. 6.

(82) Kornfeld, Reine und unreine Tiere im Alten Testament, pp. 134-36.

(83) Wenham, Leviticus, pp. 167-68.

(84) Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, p. 6.

(85) Wenham, Leviticus, p. 168.

(86) Ibid.

(87) Wenham, The Book of Leviticus, p. 168.

(88) Wenham, The Theology of Unclean Food, p. 6.

(89) With Robert A. Guelich, Mark. l-8: 26, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas, TX: Word Book Publishers, 1989), p. 378, where he cites in his support such scholars as Taylor, Cranfield, Klostermann , Lambrecht, Gnilka and Quesnell.

(90) So among others E. Klostermann, Das Markusevangelium, Handbuch zum Neuen Testament (2nd ed.; Tübingen; Kohlhammer, 1926), p. 71; W. Grundmann , Das Evangelium nach Markus, p. 195; and others.

(91) Matthew Black, An Aramaic Approach to the Gospel and Acts (2nd ed.; Oxford University Press, 1954), p. 217.

(92) Joachim Jeremias, Neutestamentliche Theologie. Erster Teil: Die Verkündigung Jesu (2nd ed.; Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus Gerd Mohn, 1973), p. 213.

(93) Ibid., p. 202.

(94) C. E. B. Cranfield, The Gospel according to St. Mark, The Cambridge Greek Testament Commentary (Cambridge: At the University Press, 1963), p. 243.

(95) William L. Lane, The Gospel According to Mark (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1974), p. 255.

(96) The Aorist tense ekathárisen used here indicated that this was a punctiliar and historical act which points back to God's distinction of the "clean" and "unclean".

(97) See the carefully argued points on this by Colin House, Defilement by Association: Some Insights from the Usages of koinós/koinôs in Acts 10 and 11, Andrews University Seminary Studies 21 (1983): pp. 143-55.

(98) Gispen, The Distinction Between Clean and Unclean, p. 196.

(99) Firmage, The Biblical Dietary Laws, 183.

(100) H. P. Müller. "qdsh heilig," Theologisches Handwörterbuch zum Alten Testament, eds. E. Jenni and C. Westermann (München: Kaiser, 1976), II:590.

(101) Gerhard F. Hasel, The Remnant. The History and Theology of the Remnant Idea from Genesis to Isaiah (Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press, 1974), pp. 263-68.

(102) Norbert Brox, Der erste Petrusbrief (Leipzig: St. Benno-Verlag, 1986), pp. 104- 107

(103) F. Hauck and S. Schulz, "pronê," Theological Dicitionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1968), VI: 592-93.